thinking outside the bill

Thinking Outside the Bill

Thinking Outside the Bill, Second Edition, gives an overview of tools proven for utilities to use in identifying and assisting their low-income customers. This quick reference introduces utilities to alternative approaches to affordability issues, updates vital demographic and programmatic information, and includes references and resources.

Download the report


Special Content Collection


This compendium of recent articles on the issue of affordability, from AWWA and WEF publications and events, was distributed at the 2018 Transformative Issues Symposium on Affordability.


Affordability Essentials

AWWA Technical Resources

Assessing the Affordability of Federal Water Mandates (PDF, 2013)
A joint issue brief from the US Conference of Mayors, the American Water Works Association and the Water Environment Federation. The mayors and water organizations also released an Affordability Assessment Tool for Federal Water Mandates to help communities consider the many factors impacting affordability and fully understand the implications of the federal water mandates they face. The tool includes worksheets to help communities accurately discern the burden of higher water bills on households at different income levels and with various demographic characteristics. 

Affordability Assessment Tool for Federal Water Mandates (PDF, 2013)
Workbook 1 (XLS)
Workbook 2 (PDF)
Workbook 3 (XLS)
Workbook 4 (XLS)
Workbook 5 (XLS)

AWWA Policy Statements

Get Involved

Related Resources


Journal AWWA Articles

AWWA Publications

m54 cover