Technical Reports


Summary of Toxicological Research for PFAS

This report provides an overview of major state, federal and international PFAS research programs and risk assessments to inform drinking water utilities about the current state of PFAS toxicology.


Source Water Evaluation Guide for PFAS

This report is designed to help communities evaluate their water supply for PFAS contamination, identify potential sources of contamination and consider potential actions that may be appropriate for their use in identifying and managing PFAS in drinking water.


Drinking Water Treatment for PFAS Selection Guide

This guidance supports water systems in making drinking water treatment decisions regarding PFAS. These compounds are expensive to analyze and challenging to remove from water. The guide reviews proven treatment technologies, discusses technical questions important to selecting technology, and reviews how to develop and organize data needed in decision-making.


The Financial Impact of the COVID-19 Crisis on U.S. Drinking Water Utilities

The aggregate financial impact of COVID-19 on drinking water utilities are an estimated $13.9 billion, representing an overall 16.9 percent financial impact on the drinking water sector. These impacts are a result of drinking water utilities eliminating shut offs for non-payment, anticipated increased delinquencies as a result of high unemployment rates, reductions in non-residential water demands and associated revenues offset by increases in residential consumption, and lower customer growth. More detail of the financial impacts associated with these factors are provided in this report.


Protecting the Water Sector's Critical Infrastructure Information

Many states have enacted laws to exempt security related infrastructure plans from public release. These exemptions differ by state, and the level of protection afforded specifically to water infrastructure information is variable. This report summarizes, to the best of our knowledge, the status of current state laws and statutes regarding protections for security sensitive information that may be created, produced, and stored by a water utility. Legal counsel should be consulted for the most current statutory reading.


A Water Utility Manager's Guide to Community Stewardship

The guide outlines strategies, tools and case studies for utilities looking to adopt a more active stewardship role in their communities.


Assessment of Performance Indicators for Non-Revenue Water Target-setting and Progress Tracking

This report is part of the Water Loss Control Committee’s work to evaluate and update the non-revenue water KPIs in AWWA's M36 Water Audits and Loss Control Programs and the associated Free Water Audit Software. The WLCC used information from the report to develop the Key Performance Indicators for Non-Revenue Water Committee Report, which recommends KPIs that utilities and regulators can use to assess and improve water loss control performance.


Water Reuse Cost Allocations and Pricing Survey

Implementation of sound principles regarding the design and application of water rates and charges for water service is a critical part of the water industry. As reuse water is a relatively new source of supply, the water industry has not yet standardized a single pricing approach. Furthermore, the measurement and allocation of costs of reuse water production is naturally complex, reflecting elements of both water and wastewater functions and requiring decisions regarding the correct treatment of shared costs.

Through a survey and structured interviews, this report examines patterns in the cost allocation and pricing for reuse water service in the United States.


Developing New Framework for Affordability

AWWA, WEF and NACWA worked collaboratively to develop methodologies to (1) describe household-level affordability in a community and (2) assess a community’s financial capacity to support the cost of additional water services.


Structural Classifications of Pressure Pipe Linings: Suggested Protocol for Product Classification

AWWA M28 had previously provided qualitative guidelines defining structural classifications of lining systems used to rehabilitate potable water pipelines. This report provides an overview of industry consensus of how to transition this from a qualitative concept to a quantitative process of product selection and classification, to better serve the industry in pipe rehabilitation solutions.


Water Sector Resource Typing Guidance

AWWA and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) have released a new Water Sector Resource Typing Guidance. The guidance replaces the Water/Wastewater Mutual Aid and Resource Typing Mnaual issued by AWWA in 2008 to fill a gap as the sector was establishing Water/Wastewater Agency Response Networks across the country.


Key Data to Inform Government Asset Management Policies

Many state and federal agencies have policies (e.g., laws, regulations, incentives, practices, procedures, and administrative actions), or are considering policies, to address water infrastructure needs. Examples include requirements for utilities to collect information about their assets (e.g., age, condition, performance, and capital needs), use asset management best practices, and develop and implement fiscal sustainability plans.

But how will state and federal officials measure the success of such policies? And how will agencies that are considering new policies decide which ones to adopt? This 2018 project will help identify the data and information that agencies can use to better assess water infrastructure needs of utilities of all sizes within their jurisdiction as well as develop, implement, and evaluate policies intended to help meet these needs.


Source Water Protection Justification Toolkit

This toolkit provides information for systems looking to implement source water protection measures for the first time and systems that want to modify or expand existing source water protection programs. As a supplement to this toolkit, a Microsoft PowerPoint template to present the initial business case for investing in source water protection to key decision-makers such as local officials, board of directors, and investors.


Water Utility Disinfection Survey

This 2017 project was the fifth disinfection survey conducted since 1978 to better understand current U.S. operation practices, regulatory effects, and disinfection-related challenges within the drinking water industry. The report summarizes the findings from the 2017 survey, particularly as they relate to current disinfection practices among the 375 utility respondents.


Buried No Longer: Confronting America's Infrastructure Challenges

Much of our drinking water infrastructure, the more than one million miles of pipes beneath our streets, is nearing the end of its useful life and approaching the age at which it needs to be replaced. Moreover, our shifting population brings significant growth to some areas of the country, requiring larger pipe networks to provide water service. As documented in this Buried No Longer report, restoring existing water systems as they reach the end of their useful lives and expanding them to serve a growing population will cost at least $1 trillion over the next 25 years, if we are to maintain current levels of water service.