Health Effects

AWWA Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs) Fact Sheets

SMCLs and Ammonia: What Every Operator Should Know

Utilities are not required to test for ammonia, but this contaminant can cause many water quality issues if not properly treated (e.g., nitrification, chlorine demand and corrosion). Ammonia often occurs in sources with others subject to Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels (SMCLs), and many systems are under pressure to provide treatment. In order to provide utilities, and particularly small systems, with an overview of the state of the science for SMCLs and ammonia treatment, the AWWA Inorganics and Inorganic Contaminants Research Committees Project Team created two informative documents using funding from the AWWA Technical & Education Council. 

Health Effects Essentials

EPA Guidance and Regulations

Canadian Guidance and Regulations

Tools and Resources

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 

Health Canada

Environment Canada

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)

Centers for Disease and Control Prevention (CDC)

World Health Organization (WHO)

El Paso County Health 

Research Projects and Reports

Volunteer Groups


National Water Quality Monitoring Council 


Search AWWA Articles

Search decades of archived articles published in Journal AWWA and Opflow on this and many other related topics.