Drinking water and wastewater systems in parts of the United States are facing a shortage of chlorine, including gaseous chlorine, sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite. States that have reported a potential shortage include California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, Idaho, Indiana, Illinois and New York. Multiple drinking water and wastewater systems have received force majeure notices from their suppliers in several regions, and in some cases have been notified that they will receive a reduced allocation of the contracted amount. Some water systems have issued water conservation orders to their customers to reduce production volume and thus extend their existing supply of chlorine. Water systems have also received chlorine from Canadian suppliers, and in at least one instance, the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency had to facilitate a border crossing for a train carrying chlorine. While there have been no reports of water systems completely exhausting their supplies, there was at least one instance in which a water system received a “just-in-time” delivery of chlorine to avoid a shutdown. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been working with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the chemical sector to assess the situation. The objective for these meetings has been to facilitate a coordinated approach among water systems, repackagers and producers to ensure immediate delivery of chlorine to water/wastewater systems. It would be optimal if producers agree to ship full allocations to the repackagers that sell to water/wastewater systems, and in turn the repackagers would prioritize delivery of full allocations to both drinking water and wastewater systems. EPA will continue to process §1441 applications of need and coordinate closely with the U.S. Department of Commerce (EPA issues a certificate of need, but Commerce actually issues the orders to the manufacturers/repackagers) in the event more formal action is necessary to secure critical treatment chemicals for the water sector. EPA Administrator Regan sent a letter to the Chemical Sector Coordinating Council urging the prioritization of the water sector for chlorine deliveries. Utilities should engage suppliers to assess availability and shipment schedule and consider alternate sources as appropriate. Any utility experiencing a chlorine supply issue is encouraged to notify its state primacy agency and consider submitting a §1441 application , which is designed to address instances of public water systems or publicly owned treatment works experiencing a shortage or other serious supply chain issue for water treatment chemicals. Disruptions in chlorine supply has been the result of multiple production disruptions at several facilities over the past several months. These disruptions have also impacted various pipe manufactures and led to shortages of materials for construction projects. The known or reported incidents include the following: August 2020 . A BioLab production facility in Louisiana was severely damaged in a fire, has not resumed production. This facility had produced a majority of the calcium hypochlorite tablets consumed in the U.S. prior to the fire. Reports indicate that other calcium hypochlorite producers have not been able to completely make up for the loss in production. February 13-19, 2021 . Winter storm Uri impacted several chlor-alkali facilities in the Gulf region, and there may be lingering production issues: Feb 15, 2021 . Westlake Chemical issued force majeure for sodium hydroxide due to the impact Uri had on several chlor-alkali sites in the Gulf region, impacting production and logistics capabilities. Feb 17, 2021 . Formosa Plastics USA declared force majeure after severe weather impacted production facilities in Point Comfort, Texas and Baton Rouge, La. Feb 18, 2021 . Olin chlor-alkali Products and Vinyls issued force majeure after the winter storm impacted several of their facilities in the Gulf region (specific locations not provided) Feb 15, 2021 . Oxy Occidental Chemical Corp issued force majeure after Uri disrupted operations at its chlor-alkali production facilities (specific locations not provided) May 18, 2021 . Westlake’s Geismar, La. chlor-alkali facility declared force majeure after a brine pipeline ruptured. The pipeline has since been repaired. May 19, 2021 . Formosa Plastics USA’s Point Comfort, Texas chlor-alkali production facility experienced extensive flooding. June 1, 2021 . Westlake’s Natrium, W.V. chlor-alkali facility has been “directly and adversely impacted due to the sudden and unanticipated failure of a critical piece of processing equipment.' June 9, 2021 . Westlake’s Longview, Wa. chlor-alkali production facility reported that an unanticipated failure of a critical piece of electrical equipment has resulted in limited availability of chlorine, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. This facility resumed full operation as of June 23. Questions can be directed to Kevin Morley , AWWA’s federal relations manager.