Reused water pipe

The Reuse Resource Community is intended to keep the water industry informed about current resources, tools, issues and developments related to reclaimed water.

If you have any questions, updates, or are aware of any additional water reuse projects, please submit them to AWWA.

Special Technical Reports

NEW! Download this easy-to-read report that emphasizes the need for potable reuse and simply explains how the treatment processes work. Use this as a resource to convey potable reuse concepts with a broad audience. 

Potable Reuse 101: An innovative and sustainable water supply solution (PDF)

In response to the many communities in the United States seeking new strategies to develop sustainable water supplies, a diverse group of water sector organizations has released a framework to help state regulatory agencies and utilities develop guidelines for safely converting wastewater into municipal drinking water through the emerging practice of direct potable reuse. 

The document, titled Framework for Direct Potable Reuse, is the result of a collaborative effort between WateReuse, the American Water Works Association, and the Water Environment Federation with the support of an independent advisory panel administered by the National Water Research Institute.

Framework for Direct Potable Reuse (PDF)

North American Reuse Regulations

 

Connecticut

  • Connecticut does not have reuse regulations or guidelines
  • Projects may still be permitted on a case-by-case basis
  • Connecticut Water

Maine

  • Maine does not have reuse regulations or guidelines
  • Projects may still be permitted on a case-by-case basis
  • The Maine Department of Environmental Protection issues wastewater discharge permits for making snow with reclaimed water under the Maine Pollution Discharge Elimination System program
  • Maine Water Rules

Massachusetts

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New York

  • New York does not have reuse regulations or guidelines

Pennsylvania

  • Guidelines: Reuse of Treated Wastewater Guidance Manual (2012)
  • Reclaimed water classes: Class A+, Class A, Class B, and Class C 
  • Class A+ = recycled water that has received secondary treatment, nitrification, denitrification, coagulation, filtration, reverse osmosis treatment, disinfection, and any other advanced treatment processes necessary to meet standardsClass A = recycled water that has received secondary treatment, nitrification, denitrification, filtration, and disinfection
  • Class B = recycled water that has received secondary treatment, filtration, and disinfection
  • Class C = recycled water that has received secondary treatment and disinfection
  • Pennsylvania Water

Rhode Island

Vermont

 

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

  • Guidelines: Water Pollution Control (2004)
  • As of 2012, these guidelines were being used as proposed future regulations for the reuse of treated wastewater
  • Guidelines focus on the design, monitoring, and control of lagoons
  • Kansas Water

Minnesota

  • Guidelines: Municipal Wastewater Reuse (2010)
  • Reclaimed water classes: disinfected tertiary, disinfected secondary 23, and disinfected secondary 200
  • Disinfected secondary 200 = recycled water that has received secondary treatment and is disinfected 
  • Disinfected secondary-23 = recycled water that has received secondary treatment and is disinfected 
  • Disinfected tertiary = recycled water that has received secondary treatment and is filtered and disinfected
  • Minnesota guidelines are based on California's regulations
  • Minnesota Water

Michigan

Michigan reuse regulations could not be located

Missouri

  • Missouri reuse regulations could not be located

Nebraska

North Dakota

Ohio

 

South Dakota

Wisconsin

Alaska

Arizona

  • Regulations: Water Pollution Control and Water Quality Standards (2008)
  • Reclaimed water classes: Class A+, Class A, Class B+, Class B, and Class C; classes are determined based on risk of human exposure to potential pathogens in the reclaimed water
  • Class A+ = recycled water that has received secondary treatment, filtration, nitrogen removal treatment, and disinfection; Chemical feed facilities to add coagulants or polymers are required
  • Class A = recycled water that has received secondary treatment, filtration, and disinfection; Chemical feed facilities to add coagulants or polymers are required
  • Class B+ = recycled water that has received secondary treatment, nitrogen removal treatment, and disinfection
  • Class B = recycled water that has received secondary treatment and disinfection
  • Class C = recycled water that has received secondary treatment in a series of wastewater stabilization ponds, including aeration, with or without disinfection
  • Class A+ and Class B+ require treatment to produce reclaimed water with a total nitrogen concentration <10 mg/L due to concerns over nitrate contamination of groundwater beneath sites where reclaimed water is applied
  • Arizona Reclaimed Water

California

Colorado

Idaho

  • Regulations: Recycled Water Rules (2011)
  • Reclaimed water classes: Class A, Class B,  Class C, Class D, and Class E
  • Class A = recycled water that is oxidized, coagulated, clarified, and filtered, or treated by an equivalent process and adequately disinfected
  • Class B = recycled water that is oxidized, coagulated, clarified, and filtered, or treated by an equivalent process and adequately disinfected
  • Class C = recycled water that is oxidized and adequately disinfected
  • Class D = recycled water that is oxidized and adequately disinfected
  • Class E = recycled water that meets at least primary effluent quality
  • Idaho Department of Environmental Quality Rules

Montana

Nevada

New Mexico

Oregon

  • Regulations: Recycled Water Reuse (2008)
  • Reclaimed water classes: Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, and nondisinfected
  • Class A = recycled water that is oxidized, filtered and disinfected
  • Class B = recycled water that is oxidized and disinfected
  • Class C = recycled water that is oxidized and disinfected
  • Class D = recycled water that is oxidized and disinfected
  • Nondisinfected recycled water must be an oxidized
  • Oregon Water Reuse Program

Utah

Washington

  • Guidelines: Water Reclamation and Reuse Standards (1997)
  • Reclaimed water classes: Class A, Class B, Class C, and Class D
  • Class A Reclaimed Water = at a minimum, is at all times an oxidized, coagulated, filtered, and disinfected
  • Class B Reclaimed Water = at a minimum, is at all times oxidized and disinfected 
  • Class C Reclaimed Water = at a minimum, is at all times oxidized and disinfected 
  • Class D Reclaimed Water = at a minimum, is at all times oxidized and disinfected 
  • Washington Reclaimed Water
  • Washington Reclaimed Water Use Rules

Wyoming

  • Regulations: Standards for the Reuse of Treated Wastewater REPEALED 
  • Reclaimed water classes: Class A, Class B, and Class C
  • Class A = recycled water that has received advanced treatment and/or secondary treatment and a level of disinfection
  • Class B = recycled water that has received the equivalent of secondary treatment and a level of disinfection
  • Class C = recycled water that has received the equivalent of primary treatment and a level of disinfection
  • Wyoming Water Quality

Alabama

  • Guidelines: Reclaimed Water Reuse Program (2015)
  • Reclaimed water classes: Class A and Class B
  • Class A = secondary treated municipal wastewater that has received additional treatment including, at a minimum, coagulation, clarification, filtration, and disinfection or an alternate acceptable process
  • Class B = secondary treated municipal wastewater that has received additional treatment including, at a minimum, disinfection
  • Reclaimed Water Reuse Policy: Highly treated reclaimed water that meets the requirements of this chapter is a valuable water resource and is considered an integral part of the utility system. It is the policy of the Department to promote, where appropriate, the practice of reuse of municipal reclaimed water through the creation and implementation of rules that give permittees various opportunities for forms of reuse. 
  • Alabama Environmental Regulations and Laws

Arkansas

Delaware

District of Columbia

  • The District of Columbia does not have reuse regulations or guidelines
  • Projects may still be permitted on a case-by-case basis
  • The city is currently developing rules and water quality requirements for stormwater use

Florida

Georgia

Kentucky

  • Kentucky does not have reuse regulations or guidelines

Louisiana

  • Louisiana does not have reuse regulations or guidelines

Maryland

  • Guidelines: Guidelines for Land Application/ Reuse of Treated Municipal Wastewaters (2010)
  • 2 types of requirements for land application/reuse of municipal and agricultural wastewaters: pre-application treatment and site requirements
  • Pre-application treatment requirements pertain to the quantity and quality of the effluent or treated wastewater that is to be applied to the land
  • Pre-application treatment classes: Class I, Class II, and Class III 
  • Site requirements are expressed in terms of geologic, soil, and hydrologic characteristics that have a direct or indirect influence on the ability of a site to renovate and recycle wastewater
  • Maryland Water Programs
  • Maryland Water Permits

Mississippi

North Carolina

  • Regulations: Reclaimed Water (2011)
  • Reclaimed water classes: Type 2 and Type 1. Both Type 2 and Type 1 = recycled water that produces a tertiary quality effluent (filtered or equivalent)
  • Type 2 reclaimed water has higher quality standards for BOD5, TSS, NH3, E. coli, Coliphage levels, Clostridium perfringe levels, and turbidity
  • North Carolina Division of Water Resources

Oklahoma

South Carolina

Tennessee

Texas

Virginia

West Virginia

 

Who is reusing?

We are looking for potable reuse projects to highlight in the Northeast. If you are aware of any project in this region please email Alex Gerling

 

Reuse Essentials

Graywater

Potable Reuse (Indirect and Direct)

Public Education and Outreach

Research

Technology

Current Standards and Model Codes

Volunteer / Committees

AWWA related products

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Scholarship Opportunities

Are you pursuing a degree related to water? Take a look at the wide range of scholarships available from AWWA and our partners. 

Full list of scholarships