Shifting the Timing of Customer Water Consumption (PDF)
- Author(s): House, Lon W.; House, Jordan D.
- Publications: Journal - American Water Works Association
- Issue Date: February 2012
- Volume / Number: 104, Number 2
- Page(s): E82-E92
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5942/jawwa.2012.104.0022
- Product Number: JAW_0075362
Non-Member Price: $0
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This research assessed how a combination of time-of-use water
meters and information affected the water consumption patterns
for representative members of customer classes during peak
summer electricity-demand periods. In addition, the project
assessed the resultant change in peak water agency electrical
demands. Compared with the control group, residential
intervention customers reduced their peak period water use by
more than 50% (significant at the 0.05 level) and their total water
use by an average of 17%. Reductions in peak and total water use
for the residential intervention group persisted after the study was
completed. The study also determined the water embedded energy
(kW?h/mil gal) of the water agency and the effect of reducing
on-peak water deliveries on the system's electricity consumption.
Results demonstrated that changes in water customer consumption
patterns may represent a viable electricity demand response
opportunity and cost reduction mechanism for the utility.
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