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Shifting the Timing of Customer Water Consumption (PDF)

  • Author(s): House, Lon W.; House, Jordan D.
  • Publications: Journal - American Water Works Association
  • Issue Date: February 2012
  • Volume / Number: 104, Number 2
  • Page(s): E82-E92
  • DOI:
  • Product Number: JAW_0075362
Full Text: pdf
Expanded Summary: pdf

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This research assessed how a combination of time-of-use water meters and information affected the water consumption patterns for representative members of customer classes during peak summer electricity-demand periods. In addition, the project assessed the resultant change in peak water agency electrical demands. Compared with the control group, residential intervention customers reduced their peak period water use by more than 50% (significant at the 0.05 level) and their total water use by an average of 17%. Reductions in peak and total water use for the residential intervention group persisted after the study was completed. The study also determined the water embedded energy (kW?h/mil gal) of the water agency and the effect of reducing on-peak water deliveries on the system's electricity consumption. Results demonstrated that changes in water customer consumption patterns may represent a viable electricity demand response opportunity and cost reduction mechanism for the utility.

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